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This blog originated as a press release from the International Communications Office at Nagoya University. Thanks to them for allowing us to repost it here.

Researchers at Nagoya University in Japan have used a new device to identify a key membrane protein in urine that indicates whether the patient has a brain tumor. Their protein could be used to detect brain cancer, avoiding the need for invasive tests, and increasing the likelihood of tumors being detected early enough for surgery. This research could also have potential implications for detecting other types of cancer. The research was published in ACS Nano.

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This blog originated as a press release from Hokkaido University. Thanks to them for allowing us to repost it here.

Researchers from Hokkaido University and Toppan have developed a method to detect build-up of amyloid β in the brain, a characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease, from biomarkers in blood samples.

Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative disease, characterised by a gradual loss of neurons and synapses in the brain. One of the primary causes of Alzheimer’s disease is the accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain, where it forms plaques. Alzheimer’s disease is mostly seen in individuals over 65 years of age, and cannot currently be stopped or reversed. Thus, Alzheimer’s disease is a major concern for nations with ageing populations, such as Japan.

A team of scientists from Hokkaido University and Toppan, led by Specially Appointed Associate Professor Kohei Yuyama at the Faculty of Advanced Life Science, Hokkaido University, have developed a biosensing technology that can detect Aβ-binding exosomes in the blood of mice, which increase as Aβ accumulates in the brain. Their research was published in the journal Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy.

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Cells can communicate with one another to coordinate essential processes such as development, growth, and repair through the release of signaling intermediates. One class of signaling intermediates are extracellular vesicles (EVs) that contain nucleic acids and proteins that mediate cell-cell communication. In cancer, the cargo of these EVs is altered in order to promote tumor progression, improving the ability to proliferate, invade, metastasize, and develop drug resistance, among other cancer characteristics. While most EVs range in diameter from 50 nanometers to one micron, there has been an increasing interest in smaller particles that might also be released from cells and contribute to cancer. Only recently has technology evolved enough to detect these previously undiscernible nanoparticles. Qin Zhang, PhD, Robert Coffey, MD, and colleagues were motivated by previous advances in the lab regarding the role of EVs in cancer to determine if smaller particles existed with similar functions. Dr. Coffey and his team discovered a new nanoparticle, termed the supermere, with functional relevance not only to cancer but to many other diseases, resulting in a publication at the end of 2021 in Nature Cell Biology (Zhang Q et al. 2021).

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