The Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium has published 700+ research articles since its inception in 2013. Articles in the category “Therapeutics” are listed here in reverse chronological order. Each article is tagged by category; you can browse different categories using the drop-down menu at the top of the page or by clicking on the tags of multi-category articles.



Ma S et al.

CD63-mediated cloaking of VEGF in small extracellular vesicles contributes to anti-VEGF therapy resistance.

Cell Rep (2021) 36:109549.

Pusic KM, Kraig RP & Pusic AD.

IFNgamma-stimulated dendritic cell extracellular vesicles can be nasally administered to the brain and enter oligodendrocytes.

PLoS ONE (2021) 16:e0255778.

Pusic KM et al.

Environmental enrichment and its benefits for migraine: Dendritic cell extracellular vesicles as an effective mimetic.

J Cell Immunol (2021) 3:215-225.

Winkle M et al.

Noncoding RNA therapeutics – challenges and potential solutions.

Nat Rev Drug Discov (2021) 20:629-651.

Gimona M et al.

Critical considerations for the development of potency tests for therapeutic applications of mesenchymal stromal cell-derived small extracellular vesicles.

Cytotherapy (2021) 23:373-380.

Tallon C et al.

Nipping disease in the bud: nSMase2 inhibitors as therapeutics in extracellular vesicle-mediated diseases.

Drug Discov Today (2021) 26:1656-1668.

Nguyen VVT et al.

Functional assays to assess the therapeutic potential of extracellular vesicles.

J Extracell Vesicles (2020) 10:e12033.

Noren Hooten N et al.

Hitting the bullseye: Are extracellular vesicles on target?

J Extracell Vesicles (2020) 10:e12032.

Gorur A et al.

ncRNA therapy with miRNA-22-3p suppresses the growth of triple-negative breast cancer.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids (2021) 23:930-943.


Bouchareychas L et al.

Macrophage exosomes resolve atherosclerosis by regulating hematopoiesis and inflammation via microRNA cargo.

Cell Rep (2020) 32:107881.

Chen F et al.

Classic and targeted anti-leukaemic agents interfere with the cholesterol biogenesis metagene in Acute Myeloid Leukaemia: Therapeutic implications.

J Cell Mol Med (2020) 24:7378-7392.

Tran AM et al.

A new world of biomarkers and therapeutics for female reproductive system and breast cancers: Circular RNAs.

Front Cell Dev Biol (2020) 8:50.

Pichler M et al.

Therapeutic potential of FLANC, a novel primate-specific long non-coding RNA in colorectal cancer.

Gut (2020) 69:1818-1831.

Silverman MG et al.

Circulating miRNAs and risk of sudden death in patients with coronary heart disease.

JACC Clin Electrophysiol (2020) 6:70-79.

Forterre AV et al.

Extracellular vesicle-mediated in vitro transcribed mRNA delivery for treatment of HER2(+) breast cancer xenografts in mice by prodrug CB1954 without general toxicity.

Mol Cancer Ther (2020) 19:858-867.

El-Arabey AA et al.

GATA3 as a master regulator for interactions of tumor-associated macrophages with high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma.

Cell Signal (2020) 68:109539.


Yang Z et al.

Large-scale generation of functional mRNA-encapsulating exosomes via cellular nanoporation.

Nat Biomed Eng (2020) 4:69-83.

Sun L et al.

miR-302a inhibits metastasis and cetuximab resistance in colorectal cancer by targeting NFIB and CD44.

Theranostics (2019) 9:8409-8425.

Sundaram K et al.

Plant-derived exosomal nanoparticles inhibit pathogenicity of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

iScience (2019) 21:308-327.

Bei Y et al.

Correction to: Exercise-induced circulating extracellular vesicles protect against cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Basic Res Cardiol (2019) 114:44.

Pusic KM et al.

IFNgamma-stimulated dendritic cell exosomes for treatment of migraine modeled using spreading depression.

Front Neurosci (2019) 13:942.

Chen X et al.

Identifying and targeting angiogenesis-related microRNAs in ovarian cancer.

Oncogene (2019) 38:6095-6108.

Petrescu GED et al.

MicroRNA based theranostics for brain cancer: Basic principles.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res (2019) 38:231.

Wiklander OPB et al.

Advances in therapeutic applications of extracellular vesicles.

Sci Transl Med (2019) 11:eaav8521.

Tapparo M et al.

Renal regenerative potential of extracellular vesicles derived from miRNA-engineered Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

Int J Mol Sci (2019) 20:2381.

Ghai V et al.

Extracellular vesicle encapsulated microRNAs in patients with Type 2 Diabetes are affected by metformin treatment.

J Clin Med (2019) 8:617.

Watts JK, Brown RH & Khvorova A.

Nucleic acid therapeutics for neurological diseases.

Neurotherapeutics (2019) 16:245-247.

Bach DH, Lee SK & Sood AK.

Circular RNAs in Cancer.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids (2019) 16:118-129.

Krichevsky AM & Uhlmann EJ.

Oligonucleotide therapeutics as a new class of drugs for malignant brain tumors: Targeting mRNAs, regulatory RNAs, mutations, combinations, and beyond.

Neurotherapeutics (2019) 16:319-347.

Gulei D et al.

CRISPR-based RNA editing: Diagnostic applications and therapeutic options.

Expert Rev Mol Diagn (2019) 19:83-88.


Kanlikilicer P et al.

Exosomal miRNA confers chemo resistance via targeting Cav1/p-gp/M2-type macrophage axis in ovarian cancer.

EBioMedicine (2018) 38:100-112.

Teng Y et al.

Plant-derived exosomal microRNAs shape the gut microbiota.

Cell Host Microbe (2018) 24:637-652.e8.

Wang QL et al.

Blood exosomes regulate the tissue distribution of grapefruit-derived nanovector via CD36 and IGFR1 pathways.

Theranostics (2018) 8:4912-4924.

Moirangthem A & Patel T.

Mesenchymal stem cell derived extracellular vesicles: a promising new therapeutic approach for hepatic injury.

Biotarget (2017) 1:12.

Haraszti RA et al.

Optimized cholesterol-siRNA chemistry improves productive loading onto extracellular vesicles.

Mol Ther (2018) 26:1973-1982.

George J, Yan IK & Patel T.

Nanovesicle-mediated delivery of anticancer agents effectively induced cell death and regressed intrahepatic tumors in athymic mice.

Lab Invest (2018) 98:895-910.

Biscans A et al.

Hydrophobicity of lipid-conjugated siRNAs predicts productive loading to small extracellular vesicles.

Mol Ther (2018) 26:1520-1528.

Wang JH et al.

Anti-HER2 scFv-directed extracellular vesicle-mediated mRNA-based gene delivery inhibits growth of HER2-positive human breast tumor xenografts by prodrug activation.

Mol Cancer Ther (2018) 17 :1133-1142.

Matsuda A & Patel T.

Milk-derived extracellular vesicles for therapeutic delivery of small interfering RNAs.

Methods Mol Biol (2018) 1740:187-197.

Lankford KL et al.

Intravenously delivered mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes target M2-type macrophages in the injured spinal cord.

PLoS ONE (2018) 13:e0190358.


Chen X et al.

RNA interference-based therapy and its delivery systems.

Cancer Metastasis Rev (2018) 37:107-124.

Pi F et al.

Nanoparticle orientation to control RNA loading and ligand display on extracellular vesicles for cancer regression.

Nat Nanotechnol (2018) 13:82-89.

Haraszti RA et al.

Loading of extracellular vesicles with chemically stabilized hydrophobic siRNAs for the treatment of disease in the central nervous system.

Bio Protoc (2017) 7:20.

Wu X et al.

The many faces of long noncoding RNAs in cancer.

Antioxid Redox Signal (2018) 29:922-935.

Sutaria DS et al.

Low active loading of cargo into engineered extracellular vesicles results in inefficient miRNA mimic delivery.

J Extracell Vesicles (2017) 6:1333882.

Zhu X et al.

Comprehensive toxicity and immunogenicity studies reveal minimal effects in mice following sustained dosing of extracellular vesicles derived from HEK293T cells.

J Extracell Vesicles (2017) 6:1324730.

Bei Y et al.

Exercise-induced circulating extracellular vesicles protect against cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Basic Res Cardiol (2017) 112:38.

Bruno S et al.

Renal regenerative potential of different extracellular vesicle populations derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells.

Tissue Eng Part A (2017) 23:1262-1273.

Ochocinska MJ et al.

NIH workshop report on the trans-agency Blood-Brain Interface Workshop 2016: Exploring key challenges and opportunities associated with the blood, brain and their interface.

Fluids Barriers CNS (2017) 14:12.

Haga H et al.

Extracellular vesicles from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells protect against murine hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Liver Transpl (2017) 23:791-803.

Sutaria DS et al.

Achieving the promise of therapeutic extracellular vesicles: The devil is in details of therapeutic loading.

Pharm Res (2017) 34:1053-1066.

Deng Z et al.

Broccoli-derived nanoparticle inhibits mouse colitis by activating dendritic cell AMP-activated protein kinase.

Mol Ther (2017) 25:1641-1654.

Haga H et al.

Extracellular vesicles from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells improve survival from lethal hepatic failure in mice.

Stem Cells Transl Med (2017) 6:1262-1272.


Maas SL, Breakefield XO & Weaver AM.

Extracellular vesicles: Unique intercellular delivery vehicles.

Trends Cell Biol (2017) 27:172-188.

Srivastava A et al.

Nanosomes carrying doxorubicin exhibit potent anticancer activity against human lung cancer cells.

Sci Rep (2016) 6:38541.

Matsuda A et al.

MicroRNAs as paracrine signaling mediators in cancers and metabolic diseases.

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab (2016) 30:577-590.

Katsiougiannis S et al.

Saliva exosomes from pancreatic tumor-bearing mice modulate NK cell phenotype and antitumor cytotoxicity.

FASEB J (2017) 31:998-1010.

Shah MY et al.

microRNA therapeutics in cancer – an emerging concept.

EBioMedicine (2016) 12:34-42.

Didiot MC et al.

Exosome-mediated delivery of hydrophobically modified siRNA for Huntingtin mRNA silencing.

Mol Ther (2016) 24:1836-1847.

Maji S et al.

In vitro toxicology studies of extracellular vesicles.

J Appl Toxicol (2017) 37:310-318.

Paladini L et al.

Targeting microRNAs as key modulators of tumor immune response.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res (2016) 35:103.

Srivastava A et al.

Exploitation of exosomes as nanocarriers for gene-, chemo-, and immune-therapy of cancer.

J Biomed Nanotechnol (2016) 12:1159-73.

Wang JQ et al.

Extracellular vesicle-mediated reversal of paclitaxel resistance in prostate cancer.

Crit Rev Oncog (2015) 20:407-17.

Chaluvally-Raghavan P et al.

Direct upregulation of STAT3 by microRNA-551b-3p deregulates growth and metastasis of ovarian cancer.

Cell Rep (2016) 15:1493-504.

Wen S et al.

Mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles rescue radiation damage to murine marrow hematopoietic cells.

Leukemia (2016) 30:2221-2231.

Wu SY et al.

A miR-192-EGR1-HOXB9 regulatory network controls the angiogenic switch in cancer.

Nat Commun (2016) 7:11169.

Teng Y et al.

Grapefruit-derived nanovectors deliver miR-18a for treatment of liver metastasis of colon cancer by induction of M1 macrophages.

Oncotarget (2016) 7:25683-97.

Hall J et al.

Delivery of therapeutic proteins via extracellular vesicles: Review and potential treatments for Parkinson’s disease, glioma, and schwannoma.

Cell Mol Neurobiol (2016) 36:417-27.

Parasramka MA et al.

Long non-coding RNAs as novel targets for therapy in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Pharmacol Ther (2016) 161:67-78.
Related Pathway


Rupaimoole R et al.

Hypoxia-upregulated microRNA-630 targets Dicer, leading to increased tumor progression.

Oncogene (2016) 35:4312-20. Related blog post

Lener T et al.

Applying extracellular vesicles based therapeutics in clinical trials – an ISEV position paper.

J Extracell Vesicles (2015) 4:30087.


Rupaimoole R et al.

Long noncoding RNA ceruloplasmin promotes cancer growth by altering glycolysis.

Cell Rep (2015) 13:2395-402.

Shields BB et al.

A genome-scale screen reveals context-dependent ovarian cancer sensitivity to miRNA overexpression.

Mol Syst Biol (2015) 11:842.
Related Pathways: 1, 2


Sercombe L et al.

Advances and challenges of liposome assisted drug delivery.

Front Pharmacol (2015) 6:286.

Zhuang X et al.

Ginger-derived nanoparticles protect against alcohol-induced liver damage.

J Extracell Vesicles (2015) 4:28713.

Zhuang X et al.

Grapefruit-derived nanovectors delivering therapeutic mir17 through an intranasal route inhibit brain tumor progression.

Mol Ther (2016) 24:96-105.

Chira S et al.

Progresses towards safe and efficient gene therapy vectors.

Oncotarget (2015) 6:30675-703.

Ainsztein AM et al.

The NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium.

J Extracell Vesicles (2015) 4:27493.

Quesenberry PJ et al.

Potential functional applications of extracellular vesicles: a report by the NIH Common Fund Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium.

J Extracell Vesicles (2015) 4:27575.

Camussi G & Quesenberry PJ.

Perspectives on the potential therapeutic uses of vesicles.

Exosomes Microvesicles (2013) 1:6.

Collino F et al.

AKI recovery induced by mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles carrying microRNAs.

J Am Soc Nephrol (2015) 26:2349-60.

Wang Q et al.

Grapefruit-derived nanovectors use an activated leukocyte trafficking pathway to deliver therapeutic agents to inflammatory tumor sites.

Cancer Res (2015) 75:2520-9.

Simonson B & Das S.

MicroRNA therapeutics: the next magic bullet?

Mini Rev Med Chem (2015) 15:467-74.

Xiao J et al.

A snapshot of genetic and epigenetic basis of arrhythmia and heart failure.

Front Genet (2015) 6:74.

Ciccone M, Calin GA & Perrotti D.

From the biology of PP2A to the PADs for therapy of hematologic malignancies.

Front Oncol (2015) 5:21.

Nick AM et al.

A framework for a personalized surgical approach to ovarian cancer.

Nat Rev Clin Oncol (2015) 12:239-45.

Ozcan G et al.

Preclinical and clinical development of siRNA-based therapeutics.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev (2015) 87:108-19.

George J & Patel T.

Noncoding RNA as therapeutic targets for hepatocellular carcinoma.

Semin Liver Dis (2015) 35:63-74.

Gonzalez-Villasana V et al.

Rac1/Pak1/p38/MMP-2 axis regulates angiogenesis in ovarian cancer.

Clin Cancer Res (2015) 21:2127-37.
Related Pathway



Choi HJ et al.

Anti-vascular therapies in ovarian cancer: Moving beyond anti-VEGF approaches.

Cancer Metastasis Rev (2015) 34:19-40.

Srivastava A et al.

Exosomes: a role for naturally occurring nanovesicles in cancer growth, diagnosis and treatment.

Curr Gene Ther (2015) 15:182-92.

Rupaimoole R et al.

Hypoxia-mediated downregulation of miRNA biogenesis promotes tumour progression.

Nat Commun (2014) 5:5202.

Sato-Kuwabara Y et al.

The fusion of two worlds: Non-coding RNAs and extracellular vesicles–Diagnostic and therapeutic implications.

Int J Oncol (2015) 46:17-27.

Kawikova I & Askenase PW.

Diagnostic and therapeutic potentials of exosomes in CNS diseases.

Brain Res (2015) 1617:63-71.

Gyorgy B et al.

Therapeutic applications of extracellular vesicles: Clinical promise and open questions.

Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol (2015) 55:439-64.

Krzeszinski JY et al.

MiR-34a blocks osteoporosis and bone metastasis by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and Tgif2.

Nature (2014) 512:431-5.
Related Pathway


Vader P, Breakefield XO & Wood MJ.

Extracellular vesicles: Emerging targets for cancer therapy.

Trends Mol Med (2014) 20:385-393.

Grange C et al.

Biodistribution of mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles in a model of acute kidney injury monitored by optical imaging.

Int J Mol Med (2014) 33:1055-63.

Pusic AD, Pusic KM & Kraig RP.

What are exosomes and how can they be used in Multiple Sclerosis therapy?

Expert Rev Neurother (2014) 14:353-5.

Zhaorigetu S et al.

Delivery of negatively charged liposomes into the atherosclerotic plaque of apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse aortic tissue.

J Liposome Res (2014) 24:182-90.

Ozpolat B, Sood AK & Lopez-Berestein G.

Liposomal siRNA nanocarriers for cancer therapy.

Adv Drug Deliv Rev (2014) 66:110-6.
Related Pathway



Pusic AD et al.

IFNgamma-stimulated dendritic cell exosomes as a potential therapeutic for remyelination.

J Neuroimmunol (2014) 266:12-23.

Wang Q et al.

Delivery of therapeutic agents by nanoparticles made of grapefruit-derived lipids.

Nat Commun (2013) 4:1867.

Gonda DD et al.

Neuro-oncologic applications of exosomes, microvesicles, and other nano-sized extracellular particles.

Neurosurgery (2013) 72:501-10.