The Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium has published 700+ research articles since its inception in 2013. Articles in the category “exRNA and EV Biology” are listed here in reverse chronological order. Each article is tagged by category; you can browse different categories using the drop-down menu at the top of the page or by clicking on the tags of multi-category articles.

exRNA and EV Biology


Clancy JW et al.

Recruitment of DNA to tumor-derived microvesicles.

Cell Rep (2022) 38:110443.


Couch Y et al.

A brief history of nearly EV-erything – The rise and rise of extracellular vesicles.

J Extracell Vesicles (2021) 10:e12144.

Zhang Q et al.

Supermeres are functional extracellular nanoparticles replete with disease biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

Nat Cell Biol (2021) 23:1240-1254.

Bittel M et al.

Visualizing transfer of microbial biomolecules by outer membrane vesicles in microbe-host-communication in vivo.

J Extracell Vesicles (2021) 10:e12159.

Valkov N et al.

snRNA sequencing defines signaling by RBC-derived extracellular vesicles in the murine heart.

Life Sci Alliance (2021) 4.

Johansson K, Woodruff PG & Ansel KM.

Regulation of airway immunity by epithelial miRNAs.

Immunol Rev AOP 2021-09-21.

Verweij FJ et al.

The power of imaging to understand extracellular vesicle biology in vivo.

Nat Methods (2021) 18:1013-1026.

Ma S et al.

CD63-mediated cloaking of VEGF in small extracellular vesicles contributes to anti-VEGF therapy resistance.

Cell Rep (2021) 36:109549.

Pusic KM, Kraig RP & Pusic AD.

IFNgamma-stimulated dendritic cell extracellular vesicles can be nasally administered to the brain and enter oligodendrocytes.

PLoS ONE (2021) 16:e0255778.

Zheng JJ et al.

Isolation of HDL by sequential flotation ultracentrifugation followed by size exclusion chromatography reveals size-based enrichment of HDL-associated proteins.

Sci Rep (2021) 11:16086.

Pusic KM et al.

Environmental enrichment and its benefits for migraine: Dendritic cell extracellular vesicles as an effective mimetic.

J Cell Immunol (2021) 3:215-225.

Giraldez MD & Tewari M.

Phospho-RNAseq profiling of extracellular mRNAs and lncRNAs.

Methods Mol Biol (2021) 2348:257-271.

Kilinc S et al.

Oncogene-regulated release of extracellular vesicles.

Dev Cell (2021) 56:1989-2006.e6.

Guo C et al.

Choice of selectable marker affects recombinant protein expression in cells and exosomes.

J Biol Chem (2021) 297:100838.

Blanco-Dominguez R et al.

A novel circulating microRNA for the detection of acute myocarditis.

N Engl J Med (2021) 384:2014-2027.

Gimona M et al.

Critical considerations for the development of potency tests for therapeutic applications of mesenchymal stromal cell-derived small extracellular vesicles.

Cytotherapy (2021) 23:373-380.

Witwer KW.

On your MARCKS, get set, deliver: Engineering extracellular vesicles.

Mol Ther (2021) 29:1664-1665.

Gruner HN & McManus MT.

Examining the evidence for extracellular RNA function in mammals.

Nat Rev Genet (2021) 22:448-458.

Tallon C et al.

Nipping disease in the bud: nSMase2 inhibitors as therapeutics in extracellular vesicle-mediated diseases.

Drug Discov Today (2021) 26:1656-1668.

Tosar JP et al.

RI-SEC-seq: Comprehensive profiling of nonvesicular extracellular RNAs with different stabilities.

Bio Protoc (2021) 11:e3918.

Martin-Jaular L et al.

Unbiased proteomic profiling of host cell extracellular vesicle composition and dynamics upon HIV-1 infection.

EMBO J AOP 2021-03-11.

Saheera S et al.

Extracellular vesicle interplay in cardiovascular pathophysiology.

Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol AOP 2021-03-05.

Ma S et al.

Gain-of-function p53 protein transferred via small extracellular vesicles promotes conversion of fibroblasts to a cancer-associated phenotype.

Cell Rep (2021) 34:108726.

Tosar JP, Witwer K & Cayota A.

Revisiting extracellular RNA release, processing, and function.

Trends Biochem Sci (2021) 46:438-445.


Tosar JP, Garcia-Silva MR & Cayota A.

Circulating SNORD57 rather than piR-54265 is a promising biomarker for colorectal cancer: Common pitfalls in the study of somatic piRNAs in cancer.

RNA (2021) 27:403-410.

Silverman DA et al.

Cancer-associated neurogenesis and nerve-cancer cross-talk.

Cancer Res (2021) 81:1431-1440.

Nieland L et al.

Extracellular vesicle-mediated bilateral communication between glioblastoma and astrocytes.

Trends Neurosci (2021) 44:215-226.

Koyano K, Bahn JH & Xiao X.

Extracellular microRNA 3′ end modification across diverse body fluids.

Epigenetics (2021) 16:1000-1015.

Li J et al.

miR-30d regulates cardiac remodeling by intracellular and paracrine signaling.

Circ Res (2020) 128:e1-e23.

Anfossi S & Calin GA.

Gut microbiota: a new player in regulating immune- and chemo-therapy efficacy.

Cancer Drug Resist (2020) 3:356-370.

Zhang Q et al.

Angiotensin-converting Enzyme 2-containing small extracellular vesicles and exomeres bind the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 spike protein.

Gastroenterology (2021) 160:958-961.e3.

Zhao Z et al.

miRNA profiling of primate cervicovaginal lavage and extracellular vesicles reveals miR-186-5p as a potential antiretroviral factor in macrophages.

FEBS Open Bio (2020) 10:2021-2039.

Xiao Y et al.

How does an RNA selfie work? EV-associated RNA in innate immunity as self or danger.

J Extracell Vesicles (2020) 9:1793515.

Fazzalari A et al.

A translational model for venous thromboembolism: microRNA expression in hibernating black bears.

J Surg Res (2021) 257:203-212.

Zeng A et al.

Glioblastoma-derived extracellular vesicles facilitate transformation of astrocytes via reprogramming oncogenic metabolism.

iScience (2020) 23:101420.

Tosar JP et al.

Fragmentation of extracellular ribosomes and tRNAs shapes the extracellular RNAome.

Nucleic Acids Res (2020) 48:12874-12888.

Drula R et al.

MicroRNAs from liquid biopsy derived extracellular vesicles: Recent advances in detection and characterization methods.

Cancers (Basel) (2020) 12:2009.

Bouchareychas L et al.

Macrophage exosomes resolve atherosclerosis by regulating hematopoiesis and inflammation via microRNA cargo.

Cell Rep (2020) 32:107881.

Koupenova M & Freedman JE.

Platelets and immunity: Going viral.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol (2020) 40:1605-1607.

Abels ER et al.

GlioM&M: Web-based tool for studying circulating and infiltrating monocytes and macrophages in glioma.

Sci Rep (2020) 10:9898.

O’Brien K et al.

RNA delivery by extracellular vesicles in mammalian cells and its applications.

Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol (2020) 21:585-606.

Sung BH et al.

A live cell reporter of exosome secretion and uptake reveals pathfinding behavior of migrating cells.

Nat Commun (2020) 11:2092.

Maas SLN et al.

Glioblastoma hijacks microglial gene expression to support tumor growth.

J Neuroinflammation (2020) 17:120.

Ahn JY et al.

Release of extracellular vesicle miR-494-3p by ARPE-19 cells with impaired mitochondria.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj (2021) 1865:129598.

Lucero R et al.

Glioma-derived miRNA-containing extracellular vesicles induce angiogenesis by reprogramming brain endothelial cells.

Cell Rep (2020) 30:2065-2074.e4.

Tosar JP & Cayota A.

Extracellular tRNAs and tRNA-derived fragments.

RNA Biol (2020) 17:1149-1167.

Yekula A et al.

Extracellular vesicles in glioblastoma tumor microenvironment.

Front Immunol (2019) 10:3137.

Ghai V et al.

Alterations in plasma microRNA and protein levels in war veterans with chronic mild traumatic brain injury.

J Neurotrauma (2020) 37:1418-1430.

Perez PS et al.

Extracellular vesicles and chronic inflammation during HIV infection.

J Extracell Vesicles (2019) 8:1687275.

Meyer C et al.

The G3BP1-Family-USP10 deubiquitinase complex rescues ubiquitinated 40S subunits of ribosomes stalled in translation from lysosomal degradation.

Mol Cell (2020) 77:1193-1205.e5.


Gambaro F et al.

Stable tRNA halves can be sorted into extracellular vesicles and delivered to recipient cells in a concentration-dependent manner.

RNA Biol (2019) 17:1168-1182.

De Los Santos MC, Dragomir MP & Calin GA.

The role of exosomal long non-coding RNAs in cancer drug resistance.

Cancer Drug Resist (2019) 2:1178-1192.

Kalra H et al.

Extracellular vesicles containing oncogenic mutant beta-catenin activate Wnt signalling pathway in the recipient cells.

J Extracell Vesicles (2019) 8:1690217.

Yokoi A et al.

Mechanisms of nuclear content loading to exosomes.

Sci Adv (2019) 5:eaax8849.

Weaver AM & Patton JG.

Argonautes in extracellular vesicles: Artifact or selected cargo?

Cancer Res (2020) 80:379-381.

Russell AE et al.

Biological membranes in EV biogenesis, stability, uptake, and cargo transfer: an ISEV position paper arising from the ISEV membranes and EVs workshop.

J Extracell Vesicles (2019) 8:1684862.

Zaborowski MP et al.

Membrane-bound Gaussia luciferase as a tool to track shedding of membrane proteins from the surface of extracellular vesicles.

Sci Rep (2019) 9:17387.

Sun L et al.

miR-302a inhibits metastasis and cetuximab resistance in colorectal cancer by targeting NFIB and CD44.

Theranostics (2019) 9:8409-8425.

Sundaram K et al.

Plant-derived exosomal nanoparticles inhibit pathogenicity of Porphyromonas gingivalis.

iScience (2019) 21:308-327.

Lee MJ et al.

The impact of Moyamoya disease and RNF213 mutations on the spectrum of plasma protein and microRNA.

J Clin Med (2019) 8:1648.

Jones PS et al.

Characterization of plasma-derived protoporphyrin-IX-positive extracellular vesicles following 5-ALA use in patients with malignant glioma.

EBioMedicine (2019) 48:23-35.

Bei Y et al.

Correction to: Exercise-induced circulating extracellular vesicles protect against cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Basic Res Cardiol (2019) 114:44.

Pusic KM et al.

IFNgamma-stimulated dendritic cell exosomes for treatment of migraine modeled using spreading depression.

Front Neurosci (2019) 13:942.

Abels ER et al.

Glioblastoma-associated microglia reprogramming is mediated by functional transfer of extracellular miR-21.

Cell Rep (2019) 28:3105-3119.e7.

Kanada M et al.

Microvesicle-mediated delivery of minicircle DNA results in effective gene-directed enzyme prodrug cancer therapy.

Mol Cancer Ther (2019) 18:2331-2342.

Fabbri M et al.

Decrypting noncoding RNA interactions, structures, and functional networks.

Genome Res (2019) 29:1377-1388.

Lee MY et al.

Distinct profiles of cell-free microRNAs in plasma of veterans with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder.

J Clin Med (2019) 8:963.

Gyuris A et al.

Physical and molecular landscapes of mouse glioma extracellular vesicles define heterogeneity.

Cell Rep (2019) 27:3972-3987.e6.

Pegtel DM & Gould SJ.


Annu Rev Biochem (2019) 88:487-514.

Haraszti RA et al.

Serum deprivation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells improves exosome activity and alters lipid and protein composition.

iScience (2019) 16:230-241.

Tapparo M et al.

Renal regenerative potential of extracellular vesicles derived from miRNA-engineered Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

Int J Mol Sci (2019) 20:2381.

Bruno S et al.

Role of extracellular vesicles in stem cell biology.

Am J Physiol Cell Physiol (2019) 317:C303-C313.

Wei Z et al.

Co-cultures of glioma stem cells and primary neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and endothelial cells for investigation of intercellular communication in the brain.

Front Neurosci (2019) 13:361.

Zhang Q et al.

Transfer of functional cargo in exomeres.

Cell Rep (2019) 27:940-954.e6.

Murillo OD et al.

exRNA Atlas analysis reveals distinct extracellular RNA Cargo types and their carriers present across human biofluids.

Cell (2019) 177:463-477.e15.

Das S et al.

The Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium: Establishing foundational knowledge and technologies for extracellular RNA research.

Cell (2019) 177:231-242.

Jeppesen DK et al.

Reassessment of exosome composition.

Cell (2019) 177:428-445.e18.

Poggio M et al.

Suppression of exosomal PD-L1 induces systemic anti-tumor immunity and memory.

Cell (2019) 177:414-427.e13.

Roy S et al.

Navigating the landscape of tumor extracellular vesicle heterogeneity.

Int J Mol Sci (2019) 20:6.

Pua HH et al.

Increased hematopoietic extracellular RNAs and vesicles in the lung during allergic airway responses.

Cell Rep (2019) 26:933-944.e4.

Jimenez L et al.

Quantitative proteomic analysis of small and large extracellular vesicles (EVs) reveals enrichment of adhesion proteins in small EVs.

J Proteome Res (2019) 18:947-959.


Chiou NT, Kageyama R & Ansel KM.

Selective export into extracellular vesicles and function of tRNa fragments during T cell activation.

Cell Rep (2018) 25:3356-3370.e4.

Kanlikilicer P et al.

Exosomal miRNA confers chemo resistance via targeting Cav1/p-gp/M2-type macrophage axis in ovarian cancer.

EBioMedicine (2018) 38:100-112.

Teng Y et al.

Plant-derived exosomal microRNAs shape the gut microbiota.

Cell Host Microbe (2018) 24:637-652.e8.

Wang QL et al.

Blood exosomes regulate the tissue distribution of grapefruit-derived nanovector via CD36 and IGFR1 pathways.

Theranostics (2018) 8:4912-4924.

Bei Y et al.

Circular RNAs as potential theranostics in the cardiovascular system.

Mol Ther Nucleic Acids (2018) 13:407-418.

Hinger SA et al.

Diverse long RNAs are differentially sorted into extracellular vesicles secreted by colorectal cancer cells.

Cell Rep (2018) 25:715-725.e4.

Gustafsson G et al.

Secretion and uptake of alpha-synuclein via extracellular vesicles in cultured cells.

Cell Mol Neurobiol (2018) 38:1539-1550.

Malabirade A et al.

The RNA complement of Outer Membrane Vesicles from Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium under distinct culture conditions.

Front Microbiol (2018) 9:2015.

Moirangthem A & Patel T.

Mesenchymal stem cell derived extracellular vesicles: a promising new therapeutic approach for hepatic injury.

Biotarget (2017) 1:12.

Regev K et al.

Identification of MS-specific serum miRNAs in an international multicenter study.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm (2018) 5:e491.

Dragomir M, Chen B & Calin GA.

Exosomal lncRNAs as new players in cell-to-cell communication.

Transl Cancer Res (2018) 7:S243-S252.

Raffai RL.

MicroRNA-146a and hematopoiesis: Friend or foe in atherosclerosis.

Noncoding RNA Investig (2018) 2:43.

Broekman ML et al.

Multidimensional communication in the microenvirons of glioblastoma.

Nat Rev Neurol (2018) 14:482-495.

Sung BH & Weaver AM.

Directed migration: Cells navigate by extracellular vesicles.

J Cell Biol (2018) 217:2613-2614.

Zhang Q et al.

Mutant KRAS exosomes alter the metabolic state of recipient colonic epithelial cells.

Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol (2018) 5:627-629.e6.

Dragomir M & Calin GA.

Circular RNAs in cancer – Lessons learned from microRNAs.

Front Oncol (2018) 8:179.

Danielson KM et al.

Plasma circulating extracellular RNAs in Left Ventricular Remodeling post-Myocardial Infarction.

EBioMedicine (2018) 32:172-181.

He X et al.

Human tRNA-derived small RNAs modulate host-oral microbial interactions.

J Dent Res (2018) 97:1236-1243.

Vujic A et al.

Exercise induces new cardiomyocyte generation in the adult mammalian heart.

Nat Commun (2018) 9:1659.

Koupenova M et al.

Micro RNAs from DNA viruses are found widely in plasma in a large observational human population.

Sci Rep (2018) 8:6397.

Haemmerle M et al.

The platelet lifeline to cancer: Challenges and opportunities.

Cancer Cell (2018) 33:965-983.

Ricklefs FL et al.

Immune evasion mediated by PD-L1 on glioblastoma-derived extracellular vesicles.

Sci Adv (2018) 4:eaar2766.

Roy S, Hochberg FH & Jones PS.

Extracellular vesicles: the growth as diagnostics and therapeutics; a survey.

J Extracell Vesicles (2018) 7:1438720.

Lankford KL et al.

Intravenously delivered mesenchymal stem cell-derived exosomes target M2-type macrophages in the injured spinal cord.

PLoS ONE (2018) 13:e0190358.


Nonaka T & Wong DTW.

Saliva exosomics in cancer: Molecular characterization of cancer-derived exosomes in saliva.

Enzymes (2017) 42:125-151.

Bayraktar R, Van Roosbroeck K & Calin GA.

Cell-to-cell communication: microRNAs as hormones.

Mol Oncol (2017) 11:1673-1686.

Nguyen TA et al.

SIDT2 transports extracellular dsRNA into the cytoplasm for innate immune recognition.

Immunity (2017) 47:498-509.e6.

Figueroa J et al.

Exosomes from glioma-associated mesenchymal stem cells increase the tumorigenicity of glioma stem-like cells via transfer of miR-1587.

Cancer Res (2017) 77:5808-5819.

Datta A et al.

Manumycin A suppresses exosome biogenesis and secretion via targeted inhibition of Ras/Raf/ERK1/2 signaling and hnRNP H1 in castration-resistant prostate cancer cells.

Cancer Lett (2017) 408:73-81.
Related Pathway


Bei Y et al.

Exercise-induced circulating extracellular vesicles protect against cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Basic Res Cardiol (2017) 112:38.

Silva AM et al.

Dendritic cell-derived extracellular vesicles mediate mesenchymal stem/stromal cell recruitment.

Sci Rep (2017) 7:1667.

Bruno S et al.

Renal regenerative potential of different extracellular vesicle populations derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stromal cells.

Tissue Eng Part A (2017) 23:1262-1273.

Rashed MH et al.

Exosomal miR-940 maintains SRC-mediated oncogenic activity in cancer cells: a possible role for exosomal disposal of tumor suppressor miRNAs.

Oncotarget (2017) 8:20145-20164.

Haga H et al.

Extracellular vesicles from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells protect against murine hepatic ischemia/reperfusion injury.

Liver Transpl (2017) 23:791-803.

Yeri A et al.

Total extracellular small RNA profiles from plasma, saliva, and urine of healthy subjects.

Sci Rep (2017) 7:44061.

Clancy L et al.

The role of RNA uptake in platelet heterogeneity.

Thromb Haemost (2017) 117:948-961.

Deng Z et al.

Broccoli-derived nanoparticle inhibits mouse colitis by activating dendritic cell AMP-activated protein kinase.

Mol Ther (2017) 25:1641-1654.

Teng Y et al.

MVP-mediated exosomal sorting of miR-193a promotes colon cancer progression.

Nat Commun (2017) 8:14448.

Collino F et al.

Exosome and microvesicle-enriched fractions isolated from mesenchymal stem cells by gradient separation showed different molecular signatures and functions on renal tubular epithelial cells.

Stem Cell Rev (2017) 13:226-243.

Maji S et al.

Extracellular vesicles in liver diseases.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol (2017) 312:G194-G200.


Maas SL, Breakefield XO & Weaver AM.

Extracellular vesicles: Unique intercellular delivery vehicles.

Trends Cell Biol (2017) 27:172-188.

Matsuda A et al.

MicroRNAs as paracrine signaling mediators in cancers and metabolic diseases.

Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab (2016) 30:577-590.

Katsiougiannis S et al.

Saliva exosomes from pancreatic tumor-bearing mice modulate NK cell phenotype and antitumor cytotoxicity.

FASEB J (2017) 31:998-1010.

Nazimek K, Bryniarski K & Askenase PW.

Functions of exosomes and microbial extracellular vesicles in allergy and contact and delayed-type hypersensitivity.

Int Arch Allergy Immunol (2016) 171:1-26.

Kanlikilicer P et al.

Ubiquitous release of exosomal tumor suppressor miR-6126 from ovarian cancer cells.

Cancer Res (2016) 76:7194-7207.

Paladini L et al.

Targeting microRNAs as key modulators of tumor immune response.

J Exp Clin Cancer Res (2016) 35:103.

Deng Z et al.

Exosomes miR-126a released from MDSC induced by DOX treatment promotes lung metastasis.

Oncogene (2017) 36:639-651.

Wang JQ et al.

Extracellular vesicle-mediated reversal of paclitaxel resistance in prostate cancer.

Crit Rev Oncog (2015) 20:407-17.

Fritz JV et al.

Sources and functions of extracellular small RNAs in human circulation.

Annu Rev Nutr (2016) 36:301-36.

Soares VY et al.

Extracellular vesicles derived from human vestibular schwannomas associated with poor hearing damage cochlear cells.

Neuro Oncol (2016) 18:1498-1507.

Zhang HG et al.

Isolation, identification, and characterization of novel nanovesicles.

Oncotarget (2016) 7:41346-41362.

McKenzie AJ et al.

KRAS-MEK signaling controls Ago2 sorting into exosomes.

Cell Rep (2016) 15:978-87.

Abels ER & Breakefield XO.

Introduction to extracellular vesicles: Biogenesis, RNA cargo selection, content, release, and uptake.

Cell Mol Neurobiol (2016) 36:301-12.

Wu SY et al.

A miR-192-EGR1-HOXB9 regulatory network controls the angiogenic switch in cancer.

Nat Commun (2016) 7:11169.

Zappulli V et al.

Extracellular vesicles and intercellular communication within the nervous system.

J Clin Invest (2016) 126:1198-207.

Teng Y et al.

Grapefruit-derived nanovectors deliver miR-18a for treatment of liver metastasis of colon cancer by induction of M1 macrophages.

Oncotarget (2016) 7:25683-97.

Pusic KM, Pusic AD & Kraig RP.

Environmental enrichment stimulates immune cell secretion of exosomes that promote CNS myelination and may regulate inflammation.

Cell Mol Neurobiol (2016) 36:313-325.

Almeida MI & Calin GA.

The miR-143/miR-145 cluster and the tumor microenvironment: Unexpected roles.

Genome Med (2016) 8:29.

Pucci F et al.

SCS macrophages suppress melanoma by restricting tumor-derived vesicle-B cell interactions.

Science (2016) 352:242-6.

Zhang X et al.

Potential transfer of polyglutamine and CAG-repeat RNA in extracellular vesicles in Huntington’s disease: Background and evaluation in cell culture.

Cell Mol Neurobiol (2016) 36:459-70.

Zaborowski MP et al.

Extracellular vesicles: Composition, biological relevance, and methods of study.

Bioscience (2015) 65:783-797.

Iavello A et al.

Role of Alix in miRNA packaging during extracellular vesicle biogenesis.

Int J Mol Med (2016) 37:958-66.

Rupaimoole R et al.

miRNA deregulation in cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment.

Cancer Discov (2016) 6:235-46.

Clancy L & Freedman JE.

Blood-derived extracellular RNA and platelet pathobiology: Adding pieces to a complex circulating puzzle.

Circ Res (2016) 118:374-6.

Rupaimoole R et al.

Hypoxia-upregulated microRNA-630 targets Dicer, leading to increased tumor progression.

Oncogene (2016) 35:4312-20. Related blog post


Rupaimoole R et al.

Long noncoding RNA ceruloplasmin promotes cancer growth by altering glycolysis.

Cell Rep (2015) 13:2395-402.

Giza DE & Calin GA

microRNA and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia.

Adv Exp Med Biol (2015) 889:23-40.

Machtinger R, Laurent LC & Baccarelli AA.

Extracellular vesicles: Roles in gamete maturation, fertilization and embryo implantation.

Hum Reprod Update (2016) 22:182-93.

Zhuang X et al.

Ginger-derived nanoparticles protect against alcohol-induced liver damage.

J Extracell Vesicles (2015) 4:28713.

Silva A, Bullock M & Calin G.

The clinical relevance of long non-coding RNAs in cancer.

Cancers (2015) 7:2169-82.

van der Vos KE et al.

Directly visualized glioblastoma-derived extracellular vesicles transfer RNA to microglia/macrophages in the brain.

Neuro Oncol (2016) 18:58-69.

Quesenberry PJ et al.

Role of extracellular RNA-carrying vesicles in cell differentiation and reprogramming.

Stem Cell Res Ther (2015) 6:153.

Patton JG et al.

Biogenesis, delivery, and function of extracellular RNA.

J Extracell Vesicles (2015) 4:27494.

Ainsztein AM et al.

The NIH Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium.

J Extracell Vesicles (2015) 4:27493.

Pua HH & Ansel KM.

MicroRNA regulation of allergic inflammation and asthma.

Curr Opin Immunol (2015) 36:101-8.

Pichler M & Calin GA.

MicroRNAs in cancer: From developmental genes in worms to their clinical application in patients.

Br J Cancer (2015) 113:569-73.

Cha DJ et al.

KRAS-dependent sorting of miRNA to exosomes.

Elife (2015) 4:e07197.

Pusic AD & Kraig RP.

Phasic treatment with Interferon gamma stimulates release of exosomes that protect against spreading depression.

J Interferon Cytokine Res (2015) 35:795-807.

Simpson LJ & Ansel KM.

MicroRNA regulation of lymphocyte tolerance and autoimmunity.

J Clin Invest (2015) 125:2242-9.

Sung BH et al.

Directional cell movement through tissues is controlled by exosome secretion.

Nat Commun (2015) 6:7164.

Bryniarski K et al.

Free extracellular miRNA functionally targets cells by transfecting exosomes from their companion cells.

PLoS ONE (2015) 10:e0122991.

Agarwal K et al.

Analysis of exosome release as a cellular response to MAPK pathway inhibition.

Langmuir (2015) 31:5440-8.

Deng Z et al.

Enterobacteria-secreted particles induce production of exosome-like S1P-containing particles by intestinal epithelium to drive Th17-mediated tumorigenesis.

Nat Commun (2015) 6:6956.

Collino F et al.

AKI recovery induced by mesenchymal stromal cell-derived extracellular vesicles carrying microRNAs.

J Am Soc Nephrol (2015) 26:2349-60.

Nouraee N, Mowla SJ & Calin GA.

Tracking miRNAs’ footprints in tumor-microenvironment interactions: Insights and implications for targeted cancer therapy.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer (2015) 54:335-52.

Saugstad JA.

Non-coding RNAs in stroke and neuroprotection.

Front Neurol (2015) 6:50.

Gardiner C et al.

Extracellular vesicles, tissue factor, cancer and thrombosis – Discussion themes of the ISEV 2014 Educational Day.

J Extracell Vesicles (2015) 4:26901.

Kanada M et al.

Differential fates of biomolecules delivered to target cells via extracellular vesicles.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A (2015) 112:E1433-42.

Haga H et al.

Tumour cell-derived extracellular vesicles interact with mesenchymal stem cells to modulate the microenvironment and enhance cholangiocarcinoma growth.

J Extracell Vesicles (2015) 4:24900.


Srivastava A et al.

Exosomes: a role for naturally occurring nanovesicles in cancer growth, diagnosis and treatment.

Curr Gene Ther (2015) 15:182-92.

Berindan-Neagoe I & Calin GA.

Molecular pathways: microRNAs, cancer cells, and microenvironment.

Clin Cancer Res (2014) 20:6247-53.

Bhattacharya S et al.

GAIP interacting protein C-terminus regulates autophagy and exosome biogenesis of pancreatic cancer through metabolic pathways.

PLoS ONE (2014) 9:e114409.

Melo SA et al.

Cancer exosomes perform cell-independent microRNA biogenesis and promote tumorigenesis.

Cancer Cell (2014) 26:707-21.

Danielson KM & Das S.

Extracellular vesicles in heart disease: Excitement for the future?

Exosomes Microvesicles (2014) 2:1.
Related Pathway


Rajendran L et al.

Emerging roles of extracellular vesicles in the nervous system.

J Neurosci (2014) 34:15482-9.

Rupaimoole R et al.

Hypoxia-mediated downregulation of miRNA biogenesis promotes tumour progression.

Nat Commun (2014) 5:5202.

Gangoda L et al.

Extracellular vesicles including exosomes are mediators of signal transduction: Are they protective or pathogenic?

Proteomics (2015) 15:260-71.
Related Pathway


Godlewski J et al.

Belonging to a network–microRNAs, extracellular vesicles, and the glioblastoma microenvironment.

Neuro Oncol (2015) 17:652-62.

Saleem SN & Abdel-Mageed AB.

Tumor-derived exosomes in oncogenic reprogramming and cancer progression.

Cell Mol Life Sci (2015) 72:1-10.

Thomas MF, L’Etoile ND & Ansel KM.

Eri1: a conserved enzyme at the crossroads of multiple RNA-processing pathways.

Trends Genet (2014) 30:298-307.
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Takahashi K et al.

Extracellular vesicle-mediated transfer of long non-coding RNA ROR modulates chemosensitivity in human hepatocellular cancer.

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Neoplastic reprogramming of patient-derived adipose stem cells by prostate cancer cell-associated exosomes.

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Extracellular vesicles released from mesenchymal stromal cells modulate miRNA in renal tubular cells and inhibit ATP depletion injury.

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Biodistribution of mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles in a model of acute kidney injury monitored by optical imaging.

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Long noncoding RNA in liver diseases.

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Takahashi K et al.

Modulation of hypoxia-signaling pathways by extracellular linc-RoR.

J Cell Sci (2014) 127:1585-94.

Zhaorigetu S et al.

Delivery of negatively charged liposomes into the atherosclerotic plaque of apolipoprotein E-deficient mouse aortic tissue.

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Dynamic biodistribution of extracellular vesicles in vivo using a multimodal imaging reporter.

ACS Nano (2014) 8:483-94.


Pusic AD & Kraig RP.

Youth and environmental enrichment generate serum exosomes containing miR-219 that promote CNS myelination.

Glia (2014) 62:284-99.

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New paradigms in thrombosis: Novel mediators and biomarkers platelet RNA transfer.

J Thromb Thrombolysis (2014) 37:12-6.

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Reversal of chemosensitivity and induction of cell malignancy of a non-malignant prostate cancer cell line upon extracellular vesicle exposure.

Mol Cancer (2013) 12:118.

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Induction of pulmonary hypertensive changes by extracellular vesicles from monocrotaline-treated mice.

Cardiovasc Res (2013) 100:354-62.

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Exosome-like nanoparticles from intestinal mucosal cells carry prostaglandin E2 and suppress activation of liver NKT cells.

J Immunol (2013) 190:3579-89.

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Biogenesis of extracellular vesicles (EV): Exosomes, microvesicles, retrovirus-like vesicles, and apoptotic bodies.

J Neurooncol (2013) 113:1-11.

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A new stem cell biology: the continuum and microvesicles.

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Neuro-oncologic applications of exosomes, microvesicles, and other nano-sized extracellular particles.

Neurosurgery (2013) 72:501-10.